2017
5
2
10
0
Combining and Steganography of 3D Face Textures
2
2
One of the serious issues in communication between people is hiding information from the others, and the best way for this, is to deceive them. Since nowadays face images are mostly used in three dimensional format, in this paper we are going to steganography 3D face images and detecting which by curious people will be impossible. As in detecting face only, its texture is important, we separate texture from shape matrices, for eliminating half of the extra information. Steganography is done only for face texture, and for reconstructing a 3D face, we can use any other shape. Moreover, we will indicate that, by using two textures, how two 3D faces can be combined. For a complete description of the process, first, 2D faces are used as an input for building 3D faces, and then 3D face and texture matrices are extracted separately from the constructed 3D face. Finally, 3D textures are hidden within the other images.
1

93
100


Mohsen
Moradi
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology – Tehran Polytechnic, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,
Iran
m.moradi8111@aut.ac.ir


MohammadReza
Sadeghi
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology – Tehran Polytechnic, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,
Iran
Steganography
Shape
Texture
Face image
Combining images
[[1] A. Bas, W. A. Smith, T. Bolkart, and S. Wuhrer, “Fitting a 3D morphable model to edges: A comparison between hard and soft correspondences,” arXiv preprint arXiv: 1602.01125, 2016. ##[2] V. Blanz and T. Vetter, “A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces,” in Proc. the 26th annual conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, Los Angeles CA, USA, 1999. ##[3] J. Kittler, P. Huber, Z. H. Feng, G. Hu, and W. Christmas, “3D morphable face models and their applications,” in Proc. International Conference on Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects, Palma de Mallorca, Spain 2016. ##[4] A. Patel and W. Smith. “3d morphable face models revisited. In in Proc. of IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 1327–1334, Florida, USA, 2009. ##[5] X. Zhu and D. Ramanan. "Face detection, pose estimation, and landmark localization in the wild," in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Rhode Island, 2012. ##[6] C. C. Chang, T. S. Chen, and K. F. Hwang, “Electronic image techniques,” Taipei: Unalis, 2000. ##[7] N. F. Johnson and S. Jajodia, “Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen,” IEEE Computer, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 2634, Feb. 1998. ##[8] P. Paysan, R. Knothe, B. Amberg, S. Romdhani, and T. Vetter, “A 3D face model for pose and illumination invariant face recognition,” in Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Advanced Video and Signal based Surveillance, Genova, Italy, 2009. ##[9] V. Blanz and T. Vetter, “Face recognition based on fitting a 3D morphable model,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 10631074, 2003. ##[10] J. R. T. Rodríguez, “3D face modelling for 2D+3D face recognition,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Electron. Eng., Univ. Surrey, Guildford, U.K., 2007. ##[11] K. Pearson, “On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 559572, 1901. ##[12] W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B.P. Flanner, “Singular value decomposition,” Solution of Linear Algebraic Equation from Numerical Recipes in C, pp. 5970, 1992. ##[13] T. P. Minka, “Automatic choice of dimensionality for PCA,” M.I.T Media Laboratory Perceptual Computing Section Technical Report, Cambridge, 2000. ##[14] H. A. Kiers, “Setting up alternating least squares and iterative majorization algorithms for solving various matrix optimization problems,” Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 157170, 2002. ##[15] C. G. Rafael and E. W. Richard. Digital Image## Processing. PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River, NJ,## USA, 3rd edition, 2006. ##[16] M. W. Chao, et al., “A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 274284, 2009.##]
Design of a Novel Framework to Control Nonlinear Affine Systems Based on Fast Terminal SlidingMode Controller
2
2
In this paper, a novel approach for finitetime stabilization of uncertain affine systems is proposed. In the proposed approach, a fast terminal sliding mode (FTSM) controller is designed, based on the inputoutput feedback linearization of the nonlinear system with considering its internal dynamics. One of the main advantages of the proposed approach is that only the outputs and external states of the system should be measured. Moreover, in order to realize finitetime convergence of the output variables, a set of switching manifolds with a recursive procedure is utilized. Finally, robust stability and efficacy of the proposed control law are shown through computer simulations.
1

101
108


Masoud
Keshavarz
Shiraz University of Technology
Shiraz University of Technology
Iran
m.keshavarz@sutech.ac.ir


Mohammad Hossein
Shafiei
Shiraz University of Technology
Shiraz University of Technology
Iran
shafiei@sutech.ac.ir
Finitetime stability
Internal dynamics
Fast Terminal SlidingMode
Canonical form
[[1] I. Utkin Vadim, “Variable structure systems with sliding modes,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 212222, 1977. ##[2] W. Gao and J. C. Hung, “Variable structure control of nonlinear systems: A new approach,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 1993. ##[3] C. Edwards and S. Spurgeon, Sliding mode control: Theory and applications. CRC Press, 1998. ##[4] A. Sabanovic, L. M. Fridman, and S. K. Spurgeon,"Variable structure systems: From principles to implementation," IET Digital Library, vol. 66, ISBN: 9780863413506, 2004. ##[5] V. T. Haimo, “Finite time differential equations,” in Proc. 24th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, vol. 24, pp. 1729–1733, Fort Lauderdale, FL., USA, 1985. ##[6] S. T. Venkataraman and S. Gulati, “Control of nonlinear systems using terminal sliding modes,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 554–560, 1993. ##[7] J. Wang , S. Li , J. Yang, B. Wu, and Q. Li ,“Finitetime disturbance observer based non singular terminal slidingmodecontrol for pulse width modulation based DC–DC buck converters with mismatched load,” IET Power Electronics, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1995 – 2002, 2016. ##[8] Z. Mao, M. Zheng, and Y. Zhang, “Nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode control of permanent magnet linear motors,” presented at the Control and Decision Conference, Yinchuan, China, 2830 May 2016. ## [9] T. Elmokadema, M. Zribia, and K. Y. Toumi, “Terminal sliding mode control for the trajectory tracking of underactuated autonomous underwater vehicles,” Journal of Ocean Engineering, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 613–625, 2017. ##[10] H. Yanga, B. X. Baib, and H. Baoyina, “Finitetime control for asteroid hovering and landing via terminal slidingmode guidance,” Journal of Acta Astronautica, vol. 132, pp. 78–89, 2017. ##[11] Y. Feng, M. Zhou, X. Zheng, F. Han, and X. Yu, “Terminal slidingmode control of induction motor speed servo systems,” in Proc. 14th IEEE Conference on International Workshop on Variable Structure Systems (VSS), pp. 351355, Nanjing, China, 14 June 2016. ## [12] T. Binazadeh and M. H. Shafiei, “Nonsingular terminal slidingmode control of a tractor–trailer system,” Syst. Sci. Control Eng., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 168–174, Dec. 2014. ##[13] K. Zhuang, K. Zhang, H. Su, and J. Chu, "Terminal sliding mode control for highorder nonlinear dynamic systems," Journal of Zhejiang University, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 482 485, 2002. ##[14] Y. Wu, X. Yu, and Z. Man, "Terminal sliding mode control design for uncertain dynamic systems," Systems and Control Letters vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 281–288, 1998. ##[15] Y. TANG, “Terminal sliding mode control for rigid robots,” Automatica, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 1998. ##[16] X. H. Yu and Z. H. Man, "Fast terminal slidingmode control design for nonlinear dynamical systems, fundamental theory and applications," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 261264, 2002. ##[17] H. K. Khalil and J. W. Grizzle, Nonlinear systems, vol. 3. Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, 2002. ##[18] S. P. Bhat and D. S. Bernstein, “Finitetime stability of continuous autonomous systems,” SIAM J. Control Optim., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 751–766, 2000. ## [19] W. Lan, B. M. Chen, and Y. He, “On improvement of transient performance in tracking control for a class of nonlinear systems with input saturation,” Syst. Control Lett., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 132–138, Feb. 2006. ##]
Market Based Analysis of Natural Gas and Electricity Export via System Dynamics
2
2
By increasing the extraction of natural gas, its role in the restructured power systems is being expanded, due to its lower pollution. Iran has the second largest reserves of natural gas in the world and exports it to different countries. This paper represents long run analysis of natural gas export from Iran to Turkey as a case study, considering direct transfer and exporting via the power market. In this regard, a system dynamics model is approached for long run analysis of the considered scenarios. The uncertainty of natural gas price is modeled by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for a long run period and four generation technologies including coalfired, combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), gas turbine (GT) and wind participate in the power market with a uniform price structure. The published data by energy information administration (EIA) about natural gas charges, costs of electricity generation and export of natural gas and electricity are applied in the simulated models. The results show that exporting the natural gas at real time price is profitable, while its conversion into electricity and exporting at market price is disadvantageous, even by expanding the renewable resources.
1

109
120


Ali
Movahednasab
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman,
Iran
movahednasabali@gmail.com


Masoud
Rashidinejad
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman,
Iran


Amir
Abdollahi
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman,
Iran
a.abdollahi@uk.ac.ir
Natural gas
Electricity export
Power market
System dynamics
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
[[1] A. Shaojie Cui, M. Zhao, and T. Ravichandran, “Market uncertainty and dynamic new product launch strategies: A system dynamics model,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 530550, Aug. 2011. ##[2] F. Olsina, F. Garce, and H.J. Haubrich, “Modeling longterm dynamics of electricity markets,” Energy Policy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp.14111433, 2006. ##[3] M. Assili, M. Hossein Javidi D.B., and R. Ghazi, “An improved mechanism for capacity payment based on system dynamics modeling for investment planning in competitive electricity environment,” Energy Policy, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 37033713, 2008. ##[4] M. HasaniMarzooni and S.H. Hosseini, “Dynamic analysis of various investment incentives and regional capacity assignment in iranian electricity market,” Energy Policy, vol. 56, pp. 271–284, 2013. ##[5] J.Y. Park, N.S. Ahn, Y.B. Yoon, K.H. Koh, and D.W. Bunn, “Investment incentives in the korean electricity market,” Energy Policy, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 5819–5828, 2007. ##[6] P. Ochoa, “Policy changes in the swiss electricity market: Analysis of likely market responses,” SocioEconomic Planning Sciences, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 336–349, 2007. ##[7] M. HasaniMarzooni and S.H. Hosseini, “Dynamic interactions of tgc and electricity markets to promote wind capacity investment,” IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 4657, 2012. ##[8] A. Forda, K. Vogstadb, and H. Flynn, “Simulating price patterns for tradable green certificates to promote electricity generation from wind,” Energy Policy, vol. 35, no.1, pp. 91111, 2007. ##[9] A. Ford, “Waiting for the boom: A simulation study of power plant construction in california,” Energy Policy, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 847–869, 2001. ##[10] A. Ford, “Boom and bust in power plant construction: Lessons from the california electricity crisis,” Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, vol. 2, no.12, pp. 5974, 2002. ##[11] J.D.M. Bastidas, C.J. Franco, and F. Angulo, “ Delays in electricity market models,” Energy Strategy Reviews, vol. 16, pp. 2432, 2017. ##[12] M. HasaniMarzooni and S.H. Hosseini, “Shortterm market power assessment in a longterm dynamic modeling of capacity investment,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 626638, 2013. ##[13] D. Chattopadhyay, “Modeling greenhouse gas reduction from the australian electricity sector,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 729740, 2010. ##[14] O. Tang and J. Rehme, “An investigation of renewable certificates policy in swedish electricity industry using an integrated system dynamics model,” International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 194, pp. 200213, 2017. ##[15] D. Blumberga, A. Blumberga, A. Barisa, and D. Lauka, “Modelling the latvian power market to evaluate its environmental longterm performance,” Applied Energy, vol. 162, pp. 15931600, 2015. ##[16] D. Eager, B.F. Hobbs, and J.W. Bialek, “Dynamic modeling of thermal generation capacity investment: application to markets with high wind penetration,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 21272137, 2012. ##[17] S. Gary, E. R. Larsen, “Improving firm performance in outofequilibrium, deregulated markets using feedback simulation models,” Energy Policy, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 845–855, 2000. ##[18] A. Jokic, E.H. M. Wittebol, and P.P.J. Bosch, “Dynamic market behavior of autonomous networkbased power systems,” International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 533–544, 2006. ##[19] A. Movahednasab, M. Rashidinejad, and A. Abdollahi, “A system dynamics analysis of the long run investment in marketbased electric generation expansion with renewable resources,” International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 27, no. 8, 2017. ##[20] N. Hary, V. Rious, and M. Saguan, “The electricity generation adequacy problem: Assessing dynamic effects of capacity remuneration mechanisms,” Energy Policy, vol. 91, pp. 113127, 2016. ##[21] E. Hartvigsson, F. Riva, and J. Ehnberg, “Using system dynamics for power systems development in subsaharan Africa,” Elkraft 2017, at Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden, May 2017. ##[22] A. Ford, “System dynamics and the electric power industry,” System Dynamics Review, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 5785, 1997. ##[23] J. ZambujalOliveira, “Investments in combined cycle natural gasfired systems: A real options analysis,” Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 49, pp.17, 2013. ##[24] J. Gil, Á. Caballero, and A.J. Conejo, “CCGTs: The Critical Link Between the Electricity and Natural Gas Markets,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 4048, 2104. ##[25] C.C. Weizsacker and J. Perner, “An integrated simulation model for european electricity and natural gas supply,” Electrical Engineering, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 265270, 2001. ##[26] D. Wang, J. Qiu, K. MENG, and Z. DONG, “Coordinated expansion coplanning of integrated gas and power systems,” Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 314–325, 2017. ##[27] L.M. Abadie and J.M. Chamorro, “Monte Carlo valuation of natural gas investments,” Review of Financial Economics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 10–22, 2009. ##[28] J. Muller, G. Hirsch, and A. Muller, “Modeling the price of natural gas with temperature and oil price as exogenous factors,” Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics, vol. 99, pp. 109–128, 2015. ##[29] J.E. Bistline, “Natural gas, uncertainty and climate policy in the US electric power sector,” Energy Policy, vol. 74, pp. 433442, 2014. ##[30] A. Klimesova and T. Vaclavik, “Gas swing options: Introduction and pricing using monte carlo methods,” Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2016. ##[31] J.D. Sterman, Business Dynamics: System Thinking And Modeling Complex World, MC GrawHILL, ISBN 007238915X. ##[32] S. Stoft, Power System Economics Designing Markets for Electricity, IEEE Press & WILEYINTERSCIENCE, 2002. ##[33] J.E. Gentle, Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods, Springer, ISBN 038700176. ##[34] J.Wagner and J. Mathur, Introduction to Wind Energy Systems: Basics, Technology and Operation, Springer, ISBN 9783642329753. ##[35] “Projected costs of generating electricity,” International Energy Agency, 2010 Edition. ##[36] R. Tidball, J. Bluestein, N. Rodriguez and S. Knoke, “Cost and performance assumptions for modeling electricity generation technologies,” ICF International Fairfax, Virginia, November, 2010. ##[37] A. Sieminski, “Annual energy outlook 2015,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, May 2015. ##[38] J. Conti, “International energy outlook 2016,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington DC 20585, May 2016. ##[39] “Natural gas exports from iran,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington DC 20585, October 2012. ##[40] S. Macmillan, A. Antonyuk, and H. Schwind, “Gas to coal competition in the u.s. power sector,” International Energy Agency, May 2013. ##]
A 12 bit 76MS/s SAR ADC with a Capacitor Merged Technique in 0.18µm CMOS Technology
2
2
A new highresolution and highspeed fully differential Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) based on Capacitor Merged Technique is presented in this paper. The main purposes of the proposed idea are to achieve highresolution and highspeed SAR ADC simultaneously as well. It is noteworthy that, exerting the suggested method the total capacitance and the ratio of the MSB and LSB capacitor are decreased, as a result, the speed and accuracy of the ADC are increased reliably. Therefore, applying the proposed idea, it is reliable that to attain a 12bit resolution ADC at 76MS/s sampling rate. Furthermore, the power consumption of the proposed ADC is 694µW with the power supply of 1.8 volts correspondingly. The proposed postlayout SAR ADC structure is simulated in all process corner condition and different temperatures of 50℃ to +50℃, and performed using the HSPICE BSIM3 model of a 0.18µm CMOS technology.
1

121
130


Sina
Mahdavi
Department of Microelectronics Engineering, Urmia Graduate Institute, Urmia, Iran
Department of Microelectronics Engineering,
Iran
ADC
Comparator
DAC
HighResolution
Highspeed
Power Consumption
MonteCarlo
[[1] S. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zhu, “A 12bit 10 MS/s SAR ADC with high linearity and energyefficient switching,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1616 – 1627, 2016. ##[2] C. Liu, M. Huang, and Y. H. Tu, “A 12 bit 100 MS/s SARassisted digitalslope ADC,” IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 29412950, 2016. ##[3] Kh. Hadidi, “Data converter course notes,” Urmia University, Urmia, Iran, 2005. ##[4] Y. Chung, M. Wu, and H. Li, “A 12bit 8.47fJ/conversionstep capacitorswapping SAR ADC in 110nm CMOS,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 1018, 2015. ##[5] Y. Chung, M. Wu, and H. Li, “A 14b 80 MS/s SAR ADC with 73.6 dB SNDR in 65 nm CMOS,” IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 30593066, 2013. ##[6] Y. Song, Z. Xue, Y. Shiquan Fan, and L. Geng, “A 0.6V 10bit 200kS/s fully differential SAR ADC with incremental converting algorithm for energy efficient applications,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 449458, 2016. ##[7] Y. Tao and Y. Lian, “A 0.8V, 1MS/s, 10bit SAR ADC for multichannel neural recording,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 366375, 2015. ##[8] S. Lei, D. Qinyuan, L. Chuangchuan, and Q. Gaoshuai, “Analysis on capacitor mismatch and parasitic capacitors effect of improved segmentedcapacitor array in SAR ADC,” in Proc. Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application, vol. 2, pp. 280283, Shanghai, China, 2009. ##[9] J. Wen, P. Hung Chang, J. Huang, and W. Lai, “Chip design of a 12bit 5MS/s fully differential SAR ADC with resistor capacitor array DAC technique for wireless application,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC), pp. 14, Ningbo, China, 2015. ## [10] W. Lai, J. Huang, C. Hsieh, and F. Kao, “An 8bit 2 MS/s successive approximation register analogtodigital converter for bioinformatics and computational biology Application,” IEEE 12th International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC), pp. 576579, Taipei, Taiwan, 2015. ##[11] W. Lai, J. Huang, T. Ye, and C.W. Shih “Integrated successive approximation register analogtodigital converter for healthcare systems applications,” in Proc. 12th IEEE International Conference on SolidState and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT), pp. 13, Guilin, China, 2014. ##[12] W. Lai, J. Huang, and W. Lin “1MS/s low power successive approximations register ADC for 67fJ/conversionstep,” in Proc. 2012 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, pp. 260263, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2012. ##[13] P. Lee, J. Lin, and C. Hsieh, “A 0.4 V 1.94 fJ/conversionstep 10 bit 750 kS/s SAR ADC with inputrangeadaptive switching,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 21492157, 2016. ##[14] M. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. Kwak, and G. Ahn, “A 12bit 200kS/s SAR ADC with hybrid RC DAC,” in Proc. 2014 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems (APCCAS), pp. 185188, Ishigaki, Japan, 2014. ##[15] S. Wong, U. Chio, Y. Zhu, S. Sin, S. Pan U, and R. Paulo Martins, “A 2.3 mW 10bit 170 MS/s twostep binarysearch assisted timeinterleaved SAR ADC,” IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 17831794, 2014. ##[16] M. Yoshioka, K. Ishikawa, T. Takayama, and S. Tsukamoto “A 10b 50MS/s 820µW SAR ADC with onchip digital calibration,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 410416, 2010. ## [17] Y. Chung, C. Yen, and M. Hsuan Wu, “A 24µW 12bit 1MS/s SAR ADC with twostep decision DAC switching in 110nm CMOS,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 33343344, 2016. ## [18] M. Yee Ng, “0.18um low voltage 12bit successiveapproximationregister analogtodigital converter (SAR ADC),” in Proc. 3rd Asia Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ASQED), pp. 277281, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2011. ##[19] W. Tseng, W. Lee, C. Huang, and P. Chiu, “A 12bit 104 MS/s SAR ADC in 28 nm CMOS for DigitallyAssisted Wireless Transmitters,” IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2222 2231, 2016. ## [20] S. Kazeminia and S. Mahdavi, “A 800MS/s, 150µV inputreferred offset singlestage latched comparator,” in Proc. 23rd International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, pp. 119123, Lodz, Poland, 2016. ##[21] S. Kazeminia, S. Mahdavi, and R. Gholamnejad, “Bulk controlled offset cancellation mechanism for singlestage latched comparator,” in Proc. 23rd International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, pp. 174178, Lodz, Poland, 2016. ##[22] W. Xiong, Y. Guo, U. Zschieschang, H. Klauk, and B. Murmann, “A 3V, 6bit C2C digitaltoanalog converter using complementary organic thinfilm transistors on glass,” IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 13801388, 2010. ##[23] Kh. Hadidi, V. S. Tso, and G. C. Temes, “An 8b 1.3MHz successive approximation A/D Converter,” IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 880885, June 1990. ##[24] L. Cong, “Pseudo C2C ladderbased data converter technique,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digital Signal Processing, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 927929, 2001. ##[25] Y. M. Liao and T. C. Lee, “A 6b 1.3Gs/s A/D converter with C2C switchcapacitor technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on VLSIDAT, pp. 14. Hsinchu, Taiwan, 2006. ##[26] H. Kim, Y. Min, Y. Kim, and S. Kim, “A low power consumption 10bit railtorail SAR ADC using a C2C capacitor array,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on EDSSC, pp. 14, Hong Kong, China, 2009. ## [27] S. Kazeminia, S. Mahdavi, and Kh. Hadidi, “Digitallyassisted offset cancellation technique for open loop residue amplifiers in highresolution and highspeed ADCs,” in Proc. 23rd International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, pp. 197202, Lodz, Poland, 2016. ##[28] D. S. Khosrov, “A new offset cancelled latch comparator for highspeed, lowpower ADCs,” in Proc. IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, APCCAS, pp. 1316, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Dec., 2010. ## [29] S. W. Lee, H. J. Chung, and C.H. Han, “C2C digitaltoanalogue converter on insulator,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 15, pp. 12421243, 1999. ##How to cite this paper: ##S. Mahdavi, “A 12 bit 76MS/s SAR ADC with a capacitor merged technique in 0.18µm CMOS technology,” Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 121130, 2017. ##DOI: 10.22061/JECEI.2017.693 ##URL: http://jecei.sru.ac.ir/article_693.html ##[30] M. TaherzadehSani, R. Lotfi, and F. Nabki, “A 10bit 110 kS/s 1.16 muhbox {W} SAADC with a hybrid differential/singleended DAC in 180nm CMOS for multichannel biomedical applications,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 584588, 2014. ## [31] W. Lai, J. Huang, and C. Hsieh, “A 10bit 20 MS/s successive approximation register analogtodigital converter using singlesided DAC switching method for control application,” in Proc. CACS International Automatic Control Conference (CACS 2014), pp. 2933, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2014. ## [32] S. Aghaie, J. Mueller, R. Wunderlich, and S. Heinen, “Design of a lowpower calibrateable chargeredistribution SAR ADC”, 10th Conference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), pp. 14 Grenoble, France, 2014. ## [33] R. Rajendran, P.V. Ramakrishna, “A design of 6bit 125MS/s SAR ADC in 0.13µm MM/RF CMOS process”, in Proc. International Symposium on Electronic System Design (ISED), pp. 2327, Kolkata, India, 2012. ##[34] S. P. Singh, A. Prabhakar, and A. B. Bhattcharyya, “C2C ladderbased D/A converters for PCM codecs,” IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. SC22, no. 6, pp.11971200, 1987.##]
A Signal Processing Approach to Estimate Underwater Network Cardinalities with Lower Complexity
2
2
An inspection of signal processing approach in order to estimate underwater network cardinalities is conducted in this research. A matter of key prominence for underwater network is its cardinality estimation as the number of active cardinalities varies several times due to numerous natural and artificial reasons due to harsh underwater circumstances. So, a proper estimation technique is mandatory to continue an underwater network properly. To solve the problem, we used a statistical tool called crosscorrelation technique, which is a significant aspect in signal processing approach. We have considered the mean of crosscorrelation function (CCF) of the cardinalities as the estimation parameter in order to reduce the complexity compared to the former techniques. We have used a suitable acoustic signal called CHIRP signal for the estimation purpose which can ensure better performance for harsh underwater practical conditions. The process is shown for both two and three sensors cases. Finally, we have verified this proposed theory by a simulation in MATLAB programming environment.
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131
138


Shaik Asif
Hossain
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi6204, Bangladesh
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication
Iran
asifruete@gmail.com


Avijit
Mallik
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi6204, Bangladesh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi
Iran
avijitme13@gmail.com


Md. Arman
Arefin
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi6204, Bangladesh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi
Iran
Bins
CHIRP signal
Crosscorrelation
Underwater network cardinality (Node)
Mean
[[1] M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, “Fast and reliable estimation schemes in RFID systems,” in Proc. 12th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 322333, ACM, 2006. ##[2] M.A. Bonuccelli, F. Lonetti, and F. Martelli, “Tree slotted ALOHA: a new protocol for tag identification in RFID networks,” In Proc. IEEE Computer Society 2006 International Symposium on on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, pp. 603608, 2006. ##[3] P. Xie, Cui, J. H., and L. Lao, “VBF: vectorbased forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks,” In Networking, vol. 3976, pp. 12161221, May 2016. ##[4] J. Shen, H.W. Tan, J. Wang, J.W. Wang, and S.Y. Lee, “A novel routing protocol providing good transmission reliability in underwater sensor networks,” 網際網路技術學刊, vol, 16, no. 1, pp. 171178, 2015. ##[5] J. Ryu, H. Lee, Y. Taekyoung Kwon, and Y. Choi, “A hybridquery tree protocol for tag collision arbitration in RFID systems,” ICC, vol. 7, pp. 59815986, 2007. ##[6] J. Myung, W. Lee, and J. Srivastava, “Adaptive binary splitting for efficient RFID tag anticollision,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 144146, 2006. ##[7] J. Myung, L. Wonjun, J. Srivastava, and K. Shih Timothy, “Tagsplitting: adaptive collision arbitration protocols for RFID tag identification,” IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 763775, 2007. ##[8] M.A. Bonuccelli, F. Lonetti, and F. Martelli, “Perfect tag identification protocol in RFID networks,” arXiv preprint arXiv:0805.1877, 2008. ##[9] C. Budianu, B.D. Shai, and L.Tong, “Estimation of the number of operating sensors in largescale sensor networks with mobile access,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 17031715, 2006. ##[10] C. Budianu and L. Tong, “Estimation of the number of operating sensors in sensor network, In Signals, Systems and Computers,” in Proc. 2004 Conference Record of the ThirtySeventh Asilomar, vol. 2, pp. 17281732, 2003. ##[11] C. Budianu, and L. Tong, “GoodTuring estimation of the number of operating sensors: a large deviations analysis, in acoustics, speech, and signal processing,” in Proc. ICASSP'04 IEEE International Conference on, vol. 2, pp. ii1029, 2004. ##[12] H. Vogt, “Efficient object identification with passive RFID tags,” in Proc. International Conference on Pervasive Computing, pp. 98113, 2002. ##[13] C. Floerkemeier, “Transmission control scheme for fast RFID object identification,” presented at the Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOMW'06), 2006. ##[14] Howlader, Md Shafiul Azam, M.R. Frater, and M.J. Ryan, “Estimating the number of neighbours and their distribution in an underwater communication network (UWCN),” in Proc. of Second International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, Canberra, pp. 2022, 2007. ##[15] Howlader, Md Shafiul Azam, M.R. Frater, and M.J. Ryan, “Estimation in underwater sensor networks taking into account capture,” in Proc. IEEE OCEANS 2007Europe, pp. 16. 2007. ##[16] L. Lanbo, Z. Shengli, and C. Jun‐Hong, “Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 8 , pp. 977994, 2008. ##[17] M.S. Anower, “Estimation using crosscorrelation in a communications network,” PhD diss., Australian Defence Force Academy, 2011. ##[18] M.S. Anower, M.A. Motin, M.S. AS, and S.A.H. Chowdhury, “A node estimation technique in underwater wireless sensor network,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), pp. 16, 2013. ##[19] M.S. Anower, M.R. Frater, and M.J. Ryan, “Estimation by crosscorrelation of the number of nodes in underwater networks,” in Proc. IEEE 2009 Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), pp. 16, 2009. ##[20] S.A. Hossain, M.F. Ali, M.I. Akif, R. Islam, A.K Paul, and A. Halder, (2016, September). “A determination process of the number and distance of sea objects using CHIRP signal in a three sensors based underwater network,” in Proc. 2016 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Communication Technology (ICEEICT), pp. 16. ##[21] S.A. Hossain, M.S. Anower, and A. Halder, “A crosscorrelation based signal processing approach to determine number and distance of objects in the sea using CHIRP signal,” in Proc. IEEE 2015 International Conference on Electrical & Electronic Engineering (ICEEE), pp. 177180, November, 2015. ##[22] I.F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad hoc networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257279, 2005. ##[23] H.P. Tan, R.R. Diamant, W.K. Seah, and M. Waldmeyer, “A survey of techniques and challenges in underwater localization,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 38, no. 14, pp. 16631676, 2011.##]
3D RF Coil Design Considerations for MRI
2
2
Highfrequency coils are widely used in medical applications, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems. A typical medical MRI includes a local radio frequency transmit/receive coil. This coil is designed for maximum energy transfer or wave transfer through magnetic resonance. Mutual inductance is a dynamic parameter that determines the energy quantity to be transferred wirelessly by electromagnetic coupling. Thus, it is essential to analyze the self and mutual inductances of this coil. Other parameters, including electromagnetic shielding, frequency, and distance, which influence voltage and power transfer are investigated here. Theoretical formulas and simulation models proposed in the present paper are implemented by using MATLAB and ANSYS MAXWELL and ANSYS SIMPLORER Finite Element (FE) packages for determining the performance and properties of the coil. So, the main goal is evaluating of software steps that simplify the design of RF resonance circuits. Also, experimental results are given for the validation of the proposed method. Consequently, Safety and efficiency are automatically maximized by following the best design considerations.
1

139
148


MOHAMMADREZA
SHIRAVI
Department of Electrical Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering
Iran
mshiravi@grad.kashanu.ac.ir


Babak
Ganji
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kashan
Iran
bganji@kashanu.ac.ir
Finite element method (FEM)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Mutual inductance
Shielding effectiveness
[[1] E. Bratschun, D. Tait, and N. Moin, “Nextgeneration MRI scanner,” Colorado State University, Final Project Report, spring 2016. ##[2] K. N. Bocan and E. Sejdic, “Adaptive transcutaneous power transfer to implantable devices: A state of the art review,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 393, 2016. ##[3] S. Y. R. Hui, W. Zhong, and C. K. Lee, “A critical review of recent progress in midrange wireless power transfer,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 4500–4511, 2014. ##[4] D. Ahn and S. Hong, “Wireless power transmission with selfregulated output voltage for biomedical implant,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electronics, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2225–2235, 2014. ##[5] D. Ahn and S. Hong, “Wireless power transfer resonance coupling ampliﬁcation by loadmodulation switching controller,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electronics, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 898–909, 2015. ##[6] F. Rodes, M. Zhang, R. Denieport, and X. Wang, “Optimization of the power transfer through human body with an autotuning system using a synchronous switched capacitor,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 129–133, 2015. ##[7] A. A. Danilov and E. A. Mindubaev, “Inﬂuence of angular coil displacements on effectiveness of wireless transcutaneous inductive energy,” Transmission Biomed. Eng., vol. 49, pp. 171–173, 2015. ##[8] H. Li, J. Li, K. Wang, W. Chen, and X. Yang, “A maximum efﬁciency point tracking control scheme for wireless power transfer systems using magnetic resonant coupling,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 30, pp. 3998–4008, 2014. ##[9] M. S. Khoozani, H. M. Kelk, and A. S. Khoozani, “Comprehension of coils overlapping effect,” Open Access Library Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, e945, pp. 113, January 2015. ##[10] R. Dunne, “Electromagnetic shielding techniques for inductive powering applications,” Thesis, Galway University, Ireland, 2009. ##[11] Y. P. Su, X. Liu, and S. Y. Hui, “Extended theory on the inductance calculation of planar spiral windings including the effect of doublelayer electromagnetic shield,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 20522061, July 2008. ##[12] S. C. Tang, S. Y. Hui, H. Shu, and H. Chung, “Evaluation of the shielding effects on printedcircuitboard transformers using ferrite plates and copper sheets,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 10801088, July 2002. ##[13] R. P. Merril, A twentyeight channel coil array for improved optic nerve imaging, The University of Utah, May 2010. ##[14] R. Brown and et al., Magnetic resonance imaging: Physical principles and sequence design, 2nd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2014. ##[15] P. Rinck, Magnetic resonance, a critical peerreviewed introduction, Internet: http://www.magneticresonance.org, 2016. ##[16] A. K. Sawhney: A course in electrical machine design, Dhanpat Rai, and Sons, 1970. ##[17] W. H. Yeadon and A.W. Yeadon, Handbook of small electric motors, McGrawHill, 2001. ##[18] M. T. Thompson, Inductance calculation techniques, Power Control and Intelligent Motion, December 1999. ##[19] H. B. Dwight, “Some new formulas for reactance coils,” Trans. Amer. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1675–1696, 1919. ##[20] F. W. Grover, Inductance Calculations: Working Formulas and Tables, New York, NY, USA: Dover, 2004. ##[21] W. G. Hurley, M. C. Duffy, J. Zhang, I. Lope, B. Kunz, and W. H. Wolﬂe, “A uniﬁed approach to the calculation of self and mutualinductance for coaxial coils in air,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 61556162, November 2015. ##[22] C. Akyel, S. I. Babic, and M. Mahmoudi, “Mutual inductance calculation for noncoaxial circular air coils with parallel axes,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER., vol. 91, , pp. 287301, April 2009. ##[23] S. I. Babic and C. Akyel, “Calculating mutual inductance between circular coils with inclined axes in air,” IEEE Trans. Magn. , vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1743 – 1750, 2008. ##[24] C. Akyel, S. I. Babic, and M. M. Mahmoudi, “Mutual inductance calculation for noncoaxial circular air coils with parallel axes,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 91, pp. 287–301, 2009. ##[25] M. R. Alizadeh Pahlavani and A. Shiri, “Impact of dimensional parameters on mutual inductance of individual toroidal coils analytical and finite element methods applicable to Tokamak reactors,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 24, pp. 6378, 2010. ##[26] J. T. Conway, “Inductance calculations for noncoaxial coils using Bessel functions,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 10231034, 2007. ##[27] W. G. Hurley and M. C. Duffy, “Calculation of self and mutual impedances in planar sandwich inductors,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 22822290, May 1997. ##[28] T. H. Fawzi and P. E. Burke, “The accurate computation of self and mutual inductances of circular coils,” IEEE Trans. Power App. and Systems, vol. PAS97, no.2, pp. 464 – 468, 1978. ##[29] X. Liu and S. Y. R. Hui, “Optimal design of a hybrid winding structure for planar contactless battery charging platform,” in Proc. 2006 IEEE Industry Applications Conference FortyFirst IAS Annual Meeting, pp. 25682575, 2006. ##[30] X. Liu, and S. Y. R. Hui, “An analysis of a doublelayer electromagnetic shield for a universal contactless battery charging platform,” in Proc. 2005 IEEE 36th Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 17671772, 2005. ##[31] H. W. Secor, Tesla apparatus and experimentshow to build both large and small Tesla and Oudin coils and how to carry on spectacular experiments with them, Practical Electrics, 1921. ##[32] T. P. Duong and J. W. Lee, “Experimental results of highefficiency resonant coupling wireless power transfer using a variable coupling method,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 442–444, Aug. 2011. ##[33] A. Kurs, A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J.D. Joannopoulos, P. Fisher, and M. Soljacic, “Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances,” Science, vol. 317, pp. 83–86, Jul 2007. ##[34] T. Miyamoto, Y. Uramoto, K. Mori, H. Wada, and T. Hashiguchi: Wireless charging system, U.S. Patent Appl. 20 120 038 317, Feb. 2012. ##[35] J. Edlinger and J. Steinschaden, “Simulation and Characterization of a Miniaturized Planar Coil,” Thesis, Vorarlberg University, Aug. 2009. ##[36] C. L. Holloway, “Electromagnetic shielding: principles of shielding of planar materials and shielding of enclosures,” National Institute of Standards of Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce, July 2010. ##[37] C. L. Zimmerman, “Lowfield classroom nuclear magnetic resonance system,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Feb. 2010. ##]
Research on Color Watermarking Algorithm Based on RDWTSVD
2
2
In this paper, a color image watermarking algorithm based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is proposed. The new algorithm selects blue component of a color image to carry the watermark information since the Human Visual System (HVS) is least sensitive to it. To increase the robustness especially towards affine attacks, RDWT is adopted for its excellent shift invariance. In addition, the SVD technique can also ensure the robustness due to the eminent properties of singular values. It is worth mentioning that the watermark information is not processed by SVD in embedding procedure, which prevents the occurrence of false positive detection. Meanwhile, to acquire a balance between imperceptibility and robustness, various scaling factor values are used towards different subbands. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has outstanding security, imperceptibility and robustness.
1

149
156


Yingshuai
Han
School of Information Science and Engineering, Rizhao Campus, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao City, Shandong Province, 276826, China
School of Information Science and Engineering,
Iran
hanyssd@126.com


Xinchun
Cui
School of Information Science and Engineering, Rizhao Campus, Qufu Normal University Rizhao City, Shandong Province 276826, China
School of Information Science and Engineering,
Iran
cuixinchun@qfnu.edu.cn


Yusheng
Zhang
School of Information Science and Engineering
Rizhao Campus, Qufu Normal University
Rizhao City, Shandong Province 276826, China
School of Information Science and Engineering
Rizh
Iran
347231197@qq.com


Tingting
Xu
School of Information Science and Engineering
Rizhao Campus, Qufu Normal University
Rizhao City, Shandong Province 276826, China
School of Information Science and Engineering
Rizh
Iran
xutingtext@163.com
RDWT
DWT
SVD
HVS
Color watermarking algorithm
[[1] B. U. Rani, B. Praveena B., and K. Ramanjaneyulu, “Literature review on digital image Watermarking,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Advanced Research in Computer Science Engineering & Technology, ACM, pp. 43, 2015. ##[2] X. P. Zhang and K. Li “Comments on: An SVDbased watermarking scheme for protecting rightful Ownership,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 593594, 2005. ##[3] K. Loukhaoukha, A. Refaey, and K. Zebbiche, “Comments on "A robust color image watermarking with singular value decomposition method," Adv. Eng. Software, vol. 42, pp. 4446, 2016. ##[4] N. M. Makbol and B. E. Khoo, “Robust blind image watermarking scheme based on redundant discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition,” AEUInternational Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 102112, 2013. ##[5] A. Z. Tirkel, G. Rankin, R. Van Schyndel, W. Ho, N. Mee, and C.F. Osborne, “Electronic watermark,” Digital Image Computing, Technology and Applications (DICTA’93), pp. 666673, 1993. ##[6] M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp, and E. Saber, “Lossless generalizedLSB data embedding,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 253266, 2005. ##[7] W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and A. Lu, “Techniques for data hiding,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, no. 3.4, pp. 313336, 1996. ##[8] B. P. Kumari and V. S. Rallabandi, “Modified patchworkbased watermarking scheme for satellite imagery,” Signal Processing, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 891904, 2008. ##[9] P. Campisi, D. Kundur, and A. Neri, “Robust digital watermarking in the ridgelet domain,” IEEE signal processing letters, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 826830, 2004. ##[10] I.H. Pan, P.S. Huang, and T.J. Chang, “DCTbased watermarking for color images via twodimensional linear discriminant analysis,” Information Technology Convergence, vol. 253, pp. 5765, 2013. ##[11] M. Urvoy, D. Goudia, and F. Autrusseau, “Perceptual DFT watermarking with improved detection and robustness to geometrical distortions,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens.. Security, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 11081119, 2014. ##[12] C.C. Lai and C.C. Tsai, “Digital image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 30603063, 2010. ##[13] S. Lagzian, M. Soryani, and M. Fathy, “A new robust watermarking scheme based on RDWTSVD,” International Journal of Intelligent Information Processing, vol. 2, no. 1.3, pp. 2229, 2011. ##[14] E. Ganic and A.M. Eskicioglu, “Robust embedding of visual watermarks using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition,” Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 043004043009, 2005. ##[15] J. George, S. Varma, and M. Chatterjee, “Color image watermarking using DWTSVD and Arnold transform,” in Proc. IEEE Annual India Conf., pp. 16, Pune, India, 2014. ## [16] T.D. Hien, Z. Nakao, and Y.W. Chen, “Robust multilogo watermarking by RDWT and ICA,” Signal Processing, vol. 86, pp. 29812993, 2006. ##[17] A.K. Gupta and M.S. Raval, “A robust and secure watermarking scheme based on singular values replacement,” Sadhana, pp. 116, 2012.##]
Design and Simulation of a Highly Efficient InGaN/Si DoubleJunction Solar Cell
2
2
A solar cell is an electronic device which not only harvests photovoltaic effect but also transforms light energy into electricity. In photovoltaic phenomenon, a PN junction is created to form an empty region. The presented paper aims at proposing a new highly efficient InGaN/Si doublejunction solar cell structure. This cell is designed to be used in a real environmental situation, so only structural parameters are optimized. In the present structure, a thin layer of CdS is used as the antireflector window layer. The cell is simulated using ATLASSILVACO software and its maximum efficiency is computed to be 37.23%. Considering the supposed structure, the findings show that the efficiency of this solar cell, which is 37.32%, is so far the highest reported efficiency amongst all solar cells.
1

157
162


Seyed Milad
Ahmadi
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah
Iran


Fariborz
Parandin
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah
Iran
fparandin@iauksh.ac.ir
Solar cell
Doublejunction solar cell
Efficiency
Real environmental situation
[[1] A. Becquerel, “Mémoire sur les effets électriques produits sous linfluence des rayons solaires,” Comptes Rendus, vol. 9, pp. 561567, 1839. ##[2] W. G. Adams and R. Day, “The action of light on selenium,” Phil. Trans. Soc. London, vol. 167, pp. 313349, 1877. ##[3] D. Chapin, C. Fuller, and G. Pearson, “A new silicon p–n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 676–677, 1954. ##[4] A. Bett, F. Dimroth, G. Stollwerck, and O. Sulima, “IIIV compounds for solar cell applications,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 119–29, 1999. ##[5] R. Moon, L. James, H. Vander Plas, T. Yep, G. Antypas, and Y. Chai, “Multigap solar cell requirements and the performance of algaas and si cells in concentrated sun light, in Proc. 13th Photovoltaic specialists conference, vol. 1, pp. 859–867, Washington, USA, 1978. ##[6] A. Datas and C. Algora “Global optimization of solar thermophotovoltaic systems,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 21, pp. 1040–1055, 2012. ##[7] A. Kongkanand, K. Tvrdy, K. Takechi, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells tuning photoresponse through size and shape control of cdsetio2 architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol. 130, no. 12, pp. 4007–4015, 2008. ##[8] A. Le Bris and J. F. Guillemoles, “Hot carrier solar cells: achievable efficiency accounting for heat losses in the absorber and through contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 97, no. 11, p. 113506, 2010. ##[9] F. Alharbi and S. Kais, “Theoretical limits of photovoltaics efficiency and possible improvements by intuitive approaches learned from photosynthesis and quantum coherence,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 43, pp. 1073–1089, 2015. ##[10] L. Hsu and W. Walukiewicz, “Modeling of InGaN/Si tandem solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 17, 2008. ##[11] Z. Li, H. Xiao, X. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Deng, L. Jing, J. Ding, and X. Hou, “Theoretical simulations of InGaN/Si mechanically stacked twojunction solar cell,” Phys. B Condensed Matter, vol. 414, pp. 110114, 2013. ##[12] S. W. Feng1, C. M. Lai , C. Y. Tsai, and L. Wei Tu, “Numerical simulation of the currentmatching effect and operation mechanisms on the performance of InGaN/Si tandem cells,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., vol. 9, no. 652, pp. 110, 2014. ##[13] H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1xN tandem PV structures,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 87, no. 1–4, pp. 595–603, 2005 ##[14] S. Nacer and A. Aissat, “Simulation and optimization of current matching multijunction InGaN solar cells,” Opt. Quantum Electron,vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 3863–3870, 2015. ##[15] X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, J. Li, and Z. Wang, “Theoretical design and performance of Inx Ga1xN twojunction solar cells,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. vol. 41, no. 24, pp. 16, 2008.##]
Alleviating the SmallSignal Oscillations of the SMIB Power System with the TLBO–FPSS and SSSC Robust Controller
2
2
Power systems are subjected to small–signal oscillations that can be caused by sudden change in the value of large loads. To avoid the dangers of these oscillations, the Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) are used. When the PSSs can not be effective enough, installation of the Thyristor–based compensators to increase the oscillations damping is a suitable method. In this paper, a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) is used in Single–Machine Infinite–Bus (SMIB). To control the signal of the output voltage of SSSC, a robust controller is used. Also, we proposed a hybrid control method to adjust the PSS voltage using Teaching–Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm and Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). Objective functions of designing parameters are based on Integral of Time multiplied by Absolute value of the Error (ITAE). The time–variations of angular speed deviations are investigated in different modes, including: with SSSC/PSS, without SSSC/PSS, different input mechanical power, and different system parameters.
1

163
170


Hossein
Shayeghi
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
hshayeghi@gmail.com


Ali
Ahmadpour
Iran
a.ahmadpour@uma.ac.ir


Elham
Mokaramian
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
e.mokarramian@uma.ac.ir
Small–signal oscillations
Power system stabilizer
Static synchronous series compensator
Teaching–learning based optimization
Fuzzy inference system
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Design of a SingleLayer Circuit Analog Absorber Using DoubleCircularLoop Array via the Equivalent Circuit Model
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A broadband Circuit Analogue (CA) absorber using doublecircularloop array is investigated in this paper. A simple equivalent circuit model is presented to accurately analyze this CA absorber. The circuit simulation of the proposed model agrees well with fullwave simulations. Optimization based the equivalent circuit model, is applied to design a singlelayer circuit analogue absorber using doublecircularloop array. Simple guidelines for designing the CA absorber are then formulated. It is demonstrated that the fractional bandwidth of 125.7% is realized for at least 10 dB reflectivity reduction with angular stability to 40˚ for both TM and TE modes. The total thickness of the absorber design is 0.093λL at the lowest operating frequency.
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M
Basravi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Iran


Zaker Hossein
Firouzeh
Dept. of Electrical & computer Eng.
Isfahan University of Technology
Dept. of Electrical & computer Eng.
Isfaha
Iran
zhfirouzeh@cc.iut.ac.ir


M
Maddahali
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Iran
Frequency selective surfaces (FSS)
Circuit analogue (CA) absorber
Equivalent circuit model (ECM)
Doublecircular –loop (DCL)
Angular stability
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