Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Department of computer engineering, faculty of electrical and computer engineering, university of Kashan, Kashan, IRan

2 Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.


Background and Objectives: Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks can enhance road safety and enable drivers to avoid different threats. Safety applications, mobile commerce, and other information services are among different available services that are affected by dynamic topology, vehicle’s speed and node misbehaving. Dynamic topology makes the route unstable and unreliable. So, improving the throughput and performance of VANET through reliable and stable routes with low overhead are among the important goals in this context.
Methods: Verifying all issues related to the reliable routing, different effective internal, external and environmental factors on route reliability are led to a new security framework in this paper. Black-hole attack and its effects, as the most well-known attack in wireless networks, along with presenting a secure routing protocol are other achievements of this paper. The proposed protocol uses a trust management system to detect and neutralize this type of attack.
Results: Simulation results show that the presented trust-based framework can increase the reliability of the networks by decreasing the effect of the malicious nodes in the routing process.
Conclusion: Our simulation results show that the proposed protocol can overcome the effects of black-hole attackers and it can increase throughput by 93% and packet received rate by 94.14% compared to the original AODV.  Investigating the effect of the other attacks, simulating in an urban area with repetitive communications and considering the RSU in verifying the trustworthiness of entities are suggested for our future works.


Main Subjects

[1] S. U. Rehman, M. A. Khan, T. A. Zia, L. Zheng, “Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) - An overview and challenges,” J. Wirel. Netw. Commun., 3(3): 29–38. 2013.

[2] S. Goli-Bidgoli, N. Movahhedinia, “A trust-based framework for increasing MAC layer reliability in cognitive radio VANETs,” Wirel. Pers. Commun., 95(3): 2873–2893, 2017.

[3] V. Kumar, S. Mishra, N. Chand, “Applications of VANETs: present & future,” Commun. Netw., 5(1): 12–15, 2013.

[4] M. S. Al-kahtani, “A survey on security in vehicular Ad Hoc networks,” in Proc. 2012 6th Int. Conf. Signal Process. Commun. Syst. (ICSPCS), 4(1): 1–9, 2012.

[5] F. Al-Hawi, C. Yeun, M. Al-Qutayti, “Security challenges for emerging VANETs,” presented at the 4th Int. Conf. Inf. Technol., Jordan, Amman, 2009.

[6] P. Golle, D. Greene, J. Staddon, “Detecting and correcting malicious data in VANETs,” in Proc. first ACM Work. Veh. Ad Hoc Networks VANET: 29–37, 2004.

[7] S. H. Cha, “A survey of greedy routing protocols for vehicular Ad Hoc networks,” Smart Comput. Rev., 2(2): 125–137, 2012.

[8] S. Mehla, B. Gupta, P. Nagrath, “Analyzing security of authenticated routing protocol (ARAN),” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng., 02(03): 664–668, 2010.

[9] R. Kumar, M. Dave, “A review of various VANET data dissemination protocols,” Int. J. Sci. Technol., 5(3): 27–44, 2012.

[10] U. Parmar, S. Singh “Overview of various attacks in VANET,” International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3( 3, 2015.

[11] P. Papadimitratos, V. Gligor, J. P. Hubaux, “Securing vehicular communications-assumptions, requirements, and principles,” Work. Embed. Secur. Cars: 1-10, 2006.

[12] H. Hasrouny, A. E. Samhat, C. Bassil, A. Laouiti, “VANET security challenges and solutions: A survey,” Veh. Commun., 7: 7–20, 2017.

[13] B. Mokhtar, M. Azab, “Survey on security issues in vehicular Ad Hoc networks,” Alexandria Eng. J., 54(4): 1115–1126, 2015.

[14] K. Amirtahmasebi, R. Jalalinia, “Vehicular networks – security, vulnerabilities and countermeasures,” Master Sci. Thesis Progr. Networks Distrib. Syst. Chalmers Univ. Technol.: 1–55, 2010.

[15] S. Santosh, R. Sharma, “VANET: Security attacks and its possible solutions,” J. Inf. Oper. Manag., 3(1): 301–304, 2014.

[16] S. Zeadally, R. Hunt, A. Irwin, A. Hassan, “Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETS ): status, results, and challenges,” Telecommun. Syst., 50(4): 217–241, 2010.

[17] T. Zhou, R. R. Choudhury, P. Ning, K. Chakrabarty, “P2DAP sybil attacks detection in vehicular Ad Hoc networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., 29(3): 582–594, 2011.

[18] P. G. Jose, S. Chatterjee, M. Patodia, S. Kabra, A. Nath, “An effective review on attacks in vehicular ad hoc networks,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng., 4(9): 2257–2263, 2016.

[19] C. Harsch, A. Festag, P. Papadimitratos, “Secure position-based routing for VANETs,” in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf.: 26–30, 2007.

[20] G. Saranya, P. Nathiya Devi, T. Amitha Raghu, “Data confidentiality and users’ location privacy in VANETs,” International Journal of Engineering Development and Research, 2(2): 1391–1397, 2014.

[21] J. M. De Fuentes, A. I. González-Tablas, A. Ribagorda, “Overview of security issues in vehicular Ad-Hoc networks,” in Handbook of Research on Mobility and Computing, IGI Global, 894–911, 2011.

[22] V. H. La, A. Cavalli, “Security attacks and solutions in a vehicular Ad Hoc networks : A survey,” Int. J. Ad Hoc Netw. Syst., 4(2): 1–20, 2014.

[23] R. S. Raw, M. Kumar, N. Singh, “Security challenges, issues and their solutions for VANET,” Int. J. Netw. Secur. Its Appl., 5(5): 95–105, 2013.

[24] S. Kumar Biswal, “Onboard unit based authentication for V2V communication in VANET,” Natl. Inst. Technol.: 1–46, 2014.

[25] Y. C. Hu, A. Perrig, D. B. Johnson, “Ariadne: A secure on-demand routing protocol for Ad Hoc networks,” Wirel. Networks, 11(1–2): 21–38, 2005.

[26] D. Yan, “Routing and security in vehicular networking,”.

[27] O. In, H. Hartenstein, K. P. Laberteaux, “A tutorial survey on vehicular Ad Hoc networks,” Commun. Mag. IEEE, 46(6): 164–171, 2008.

[28] A. Hassan, S. Zeadally, R. Hunt, A. Irwin, Y. S. Chen, “Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETS): Status, results, and challenges,” Telecommunication Systems, 50(4): 217–241, 2010.

[29] V. Patel, “A survey paper of bellman-ford algorithm and dijkstra algorithm for finding shortest path in GIS application,” Int. J. P2P Netw. Trends Technol., 5: 1–4, 2014.

[30] S. Erotokritou, “Secure message transmission and its applications,” Doctoral dissertation, UCL (University College London), 2016.

[31] V. Singh, M. Jain, “Secure AODV routing protocols based on concept of trust in MANETs,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Comp. Eng. Tech. (IJARCET), 3(12): 4425–4428, 2014.

[32] Y. C. Hu, A. Perrig, D. B. Johnson, “Ariadne: A secure on-demand routing protocol for Ad Hoc networks,” Wirel. networks, 11(1–2): 21–38, 2005.

[33] M. G. Zapata, N. Asokan, “Securing Ad Hoc routing protocols,” in Proc. of the 1st ACM workshop on Wireless security): 1–10, 2003.

[34] Y. J. Li, 2012, “An Overview of the DSRC / WAVE Technology,” Qual. Reliab. Secur. Robustness Heterog. Networks: 544–558.

[35] V. Kumar,  P. K. Dahiya, “Mobility management in vehicular adhoc networks : a review,” IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, 11(1): 85–96, 2016.

[36] S. Goli-Bidgoli, N. Movahhedinia, “Determining vehicles’ radio transmission range for increasing cognitive radio VANET (CR-VANET) reliability using a trust management system,” Comput. Networks, 127): 340–351, 2017.