Background and Objectives: A robot arm is a multi-input multi-output and non-linear system that has many industrial applications. Parameter uncertainties and external disturbances attenuate the performance of this system and a controller design is hence necessary to overcome them.
Methods: In this paper, the interval Type II Fuzzy fractional-order proportional integral differential (IT2FO-FPID) controller is designed to control a robot arm with 2 degrees of freedom (two-link robot arm). Whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is used to determine the optimal value of controller parameters. The performance of IT2FO-FPID is compared with PID, fractional-order PID (FOPID) and Fuzzy FOPID whose parameters are determined by WOA. The performance of IT2FO-FPID whose parameters are determined by WOA, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization methods are compared.
Results: Quantitative and qualitative results of simulations indicate performance improvement with the IT2FO-FPID controller. The ability of WOA in optimizing the parameters of the IT2FO-FPID controller is demonstrated.
Conclusion: Sensitivity analysis and the study of the effect of parameter variations and disturbances confirm the robust performance of WOA-based IT2FO-FPID.