Document Type: Original Research Paper


Department of Computer and Information Technology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.


Background and Objectives: Design of low-complexity receiver for space-time block coded (STBC) transmission over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiple-access channels has been subject of interest over the years. In this regard, zero-forcing receiver, as a low complexity receiver needing as many receive antennas as the numbers of users, has received increasing attention.
Methods: This paper investigates multiuser detection for STBC transmission over a flat-fading MIMO multiple-access channel consisting of  co-channel users each with  antennas and a zero-forcing coherent receiver equipping with  receiving antennas. For the cases in which , it was previously claimed that it is impossible to extend this receiver to general scenarios of orthogonal STBC transmission with  and .
Results: We provide a theorem allowing this extension to any scenarios satisfying the theorem condition. Describing in more details, we first prove that zero-forcing receiver of  antennas can successfully extend to any STBC transmission over MIMO multiple-access systems which provides an Alamouti-like structure for the inner product of equivalent channels between different receive antennas and users. Then, in order to gain more insight, the theorem role on extending zero-forcing receiver for transmission of orthogonal STBC over MIMO multiple-access systems with  and , and also to other STBC schemes like generalized coordinate interleaved orthogonal design and Quasi-orthogonal STBC is investigated in more details. Finally, the average symbol error rate of considered scenarios are numerically evaluated and compered for different STBC schemes with various numbers of  and .
Conclusion: Generally speaking, it is concluded that extension of zero-forcing receiver to any scenarios of OSTBC transmissions over MIMO multiple-access channels exactly depends on satisfaction of the provided theorem and this receiver can be successfully employed in all scenarios providing an Alamouti-like structure for the inner product of equivalent channels between different receiving antennas and users. 


Main Subjects

[1] M. B. Noori Shirazi, A. Golestani, H. Ahmadian Yazdi, and A. Habibi Daronkola, "Analysis and comparison of PAPR reduction techniques in OFDM systems," Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations, 3(1): 37-45, 2015.  

[2] E. Telatar, “Capacity of the multiple antenna Gaussian channel,” European Transactions on Telecommunications, 10: 585–595, 1999.

[3] G. J. Foschini, “Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multi-element antennas,” Bell Labs Technical Journal, 1: 41–59, 1996.

[4] A. Bahrami, W. P. Ng, Z. Ghassemlooy, T. Kanesan, "Effect of nonlinear phase variation in optical Millimetre wave radio over fiber systems," Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations, 3(1): 17-27, 2015.

[5] S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE Journal of Selected Areas on Communications, 16(8): 1803-1810, 1998.

[6] V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time block codes from orthogonal designs,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 45(5): 1456-1467, Jul. 1999.

[7] F. Alsifiany, A. Ikhlef, J. Chambers, "Exploiting high rate differential algebraic space-time block code in downlink multiuser MIMO systems," IET Communications, 12(17): 2188-2197, 2018.

[8] H. Na, C. Lee, "An inter user interference cancellation scheme for two users in full-duplex MIMO system,"EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking(1, Article number: 171, 2018.

[9] F. Alsifiany, A. Ikhlef, M. Alageli, J. Chambers, "Differential downlink transmission in Massive MU-MIMO systems," IEEE Access, 7: 86906-86919, 2019.

[10] F. Li, H. Jafarkhani, "Interference cancellation and detection for more than two users," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 59(3): 901-910, march 2011.

[11] S. Poorkasmaei, H. Jafarkhani, "Orthogonal differential modulation for MIMO multiple access channels with two users," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 61(6): 2374-2384, 2013.

[12] S. Poorkasmaei, H. Jafarkhani, "Asynchronous orthogonal differential decoding for Multiple access channels," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(1): 481–493, 2015.

[13] V. Tarokh, A. F. Naguib, N. Seshadri, A. R. Calderbank, "Combined array processing and space-time coding," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 45(4): 1121-1128, 1999.

[14] A. F. Naguib, N. Seshadri, A.R. Calderbank, "Applications of space-time block codes and interference suppression for high capacity and high data rate wireless systems," In proceedings of Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers,: 1803-1810, 1998.

[15] A. Stamoulis, N. Al-Dhahir, A.R. Calderbank, "Further results on interference cancellation and space-time block codes," In proceedings of Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers,: 257-262, 2001.

[16] J. Kazemitabar, H. Jafarkhani, "Multiuser interference cancellation and detection for users with more than two transmit antennas," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 56(4): 574-583, 2008.

[17] Z. Liu, G. B. Giannakis, "Space-time block-coded multiple access through frequency-selective fading channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 49(6): 1033-1044, 2001.

[18] M. Sheikh‐Hosseini, "Transceiver design for STBC transmission over MIMO multiple‐access SC‐FDE systems," Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies,  29(6): e3304, 2018.

[19] H. Jafarkhani, "A quasi-orthogonal space-time block code," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 49(1): 1-4, 2001.

[20] Z. A. Khan, B. S. Rajan, "Single-symbol maximum likelihood decodable linear STBCs,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 52(5): 2062-2091, 2006.

[21] W. Su, X.G. Xia, "On space-time block codes from complex orthogonal designs," Wireless Personal Communications, 25(1): 1-26, 2003.

[22] Z. A. Khan, B. S. Rajan, "A generalization of some existence results on orthogonal designs for STBCs," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 50(5): 218-219, 2004.

[23] O. Tirkkonen, A. Hottinen, "Square-matrix embeddable space-time block codes for complex signal constellations," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(2): 384-395, 2002.

[24] A. H. Sayed, W. M. Younis, A. Tarighat, "An invariant matrix structure in multi-antenna communications," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 12(11): 749–752, 2005.

[25] L. Zhang, H. Zheng, S. Li, M Wu, "A selective co-channel interference mitigation method for Alamouti code," In proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications,: 149–154, 2006.

[26] S. Karmakar, B. S. Rajan, "High-rate, Double-Symbol-Decodable STBCs from Clifford Algebras," In proceedings of IEEE Globecom 2006, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2006.

[27] S. Karmakar, B. S. Rajan, "High-rate, multi-symbol-decodable STBCs from Clifford algebras," IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 15(6): 2682-2695, 2009.

[28] T. Khomyat, P. Uthansakul, M. Uthansakul, S. B. Hee, "On the performance of the zero-forcing-space-time block coding multiple-input–multiple-output receiver with channel estimation
error and error propagation," IET Communications, 8(18): 3381-3392, 2014.