Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

2 University of Kashan


Background and Objectives: The microgrid voltage and frequency are strongly affected by active and reactive load fluctuations. Load change in microgrid may result in the lack of balance among generation and consumption and as a result change in output voltage and frequency. If load change is great enough, distribution generation cannot stabilize the microgrid. The main objective of this article is to control the distribution of active and reactive power related to an inverter-based distributed generation (DG) in the microgrid using intelligent methods. 
Methods: In this study, frequency and voltage of an active generator connected to the microgrid is also controlled with applying adaptive the fuzzy sliding mode control (AFSMC) and the droop control Methods To solve the problems related to design of the sliding mode controller, a compensator control system is suggested. A rule based on the Lyapunov stability theory is also introduced to ensure the stability of closed loop system.
Results: Using MATLAB/SIMULINIK software, simulation results are provided for the proposed controller and its performance under different conditions for a typical power system is evaluated. Simulation of the considered power system is done to track different values of active and reactive power.
Conclusion: The provided simulation results show the effectiveness of suggested method to regulate active and reactive power and to control voltage and frequency of the microgrid. 


Main Subjects

[1]     R. Kadri, J. P. Gaubert, and G. Champenois, "An improved maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic grid-connected inverter based on voltage-oriented control," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 66-75, 2011.

[2]     H. Bevrani, "Microgrid controls," Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, McGraw Hill, 2012.

[3]     R. Lasseter, J. Eto, B. Schenkman, J. Stevens, H. Vollkommer, D. Klapp, E. Linton, H. Hurtado, and J. Roy, "CERTS microgrid laboratory test bed," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no.1, pp. 325-332, 2011.

[4]     C. Moreira and J. P. Lopes, "Microgrids dynamic security assessment," in Proc. 2007 IEEE International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, pp. 26-32.

[5]     J. Hu, J. Zhu, D. G. Dorrell, and J. M. Guerrero, "Virtual flux droop method, a new control strategy of inverters in Microgrids, " IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 4704-11, 2014.

[6]     E. Rokrok, M. Shafie-Khah, and J. P. Catalão, "Review of primary voltage and frequency control methods for inverter-based islanded microgrids with distributed generation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 3225-3235, 2018.

[7]     M. R. HojatyDana and M. R. AlizadehPahlavani, "Control strategies for performance assessment of an autonomous wind energy conversion system," Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 15-20, 2014.

[8]     H. Amiri, G. Arab, and N. Mahdian, "Voltage control and load sharing in a DC islanded microgrid based on disturbance observer," Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI), vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-10, 2019.

[9]     D. O. Amoateng, M. Al Hosani, M. S. Elmoursi, K. Turitsyn, and J. L. Kirtley, "Adaptive voltage and frequency control of islanded multi-microgrids," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 4454-4465, 2017.

[10]  T. Vigneysh and N. Kumarappan, "Artificial neural network based droop-control technique for accurate power sharing in an islanded microgrid," International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 827-838, 2016.

[11]  A. Karaki, M. Begovic, S. Bayhan, and H. Abu-Rub, "Frequency and voltage restoration for droop controlled AC microgrids", International Conference on Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE), pp. 1-6, 2019.

[12]  P. Subbaraj and K. Manickavasagam, "Generation control of interconnected power systems using computational intelligence techniques," IET GENER TRANSM DIS., vol. 1, no.4, pp. 557-563, 2007.

[13]  H. Bevrani, A. Ghosh, and G. Ledwich, "Renewable energy sources and frequency regulation: Survey and new perspectives," IET RENEW POWER GEN., vol. 4, no.5, pp. 438-457, 2010.

[14]  P. Villenueve, "Concerns generated by islanding [electric power generation]," IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 2, pp. 49-53, 2004.

[15]  J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. de Vicuña, and M. Castilla, "Hierarchical control of droop-controlled AC and DC micro grids-A general approach toward standardization," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no.1, pp. 158-172, 2011.

[16]  S. Peng, A. Luo, Y. Chen, and Z. Lv, "Dual-loop power control for single phase grid-connected converters with LCL filter," J. Power Electron., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1-8, 2011.

[17]  M. Sitbon, S. Schacham, and A. Kuperman, "Disturbance observer based voltage regulation of current-mode-boost-converter interfaced Photovoltaic generator," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 5776-5785, 2015.

[18]  A. G. Yepes, F. D. Freijedo, J. Doval-Gandoy, O. Lopez, J. Malvar, and P. Fernandez-Comesana, "Effects of discretization methods on the performance of resonant controllers," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1692-1712. 2010.

[19]  A. Kuperman, "Proportional-resonant current controllers design based on desired transient performance," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 5341-5345, 2015.

[20]  C. Kannana, N. K. Mohantyb, and R. Selvarasuc, "A new topology for cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter with PI and Fuzzy control," Energy Procedia, vol. 117, pp. 917-926, 2017.

[21]  F. Karbakhsh, G. B. Gharehpetian , J. Milimonfared, and A. Teymoori, "Three-phase photovoltaic grid-tied inverter based on feed-forward decoupling control using fuzzy-PI controller," in Proc. 2016 IEEE Power Electronics, Drive Systems &Technologies Conf., pp. 344-348.

[22]  K. Sinthipsomboon, W. Pongaen, and P. Pratumsuwan, "A hybrid of fuzzy and fuzzy self-tuning PID controller for servo electro-hydraulic system," in Proc. 2011 IEEE Industrial Electronics and Applications Conf., pp. 220- 225.

[23]  P. Cortes, J. Rodriguez, C. Silva, and A. Flores, "Delay compensation in model predictive current control of a three-phase inverter," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 1323-132, 2012.

[24]  Z. Zeng, H. Li, S. Tang, H. Yang, and R. Zhao, "Multi-objective control of multifunctional grid-connected inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality service," IET Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 761-70, 2016.

[25]   E. Limouchi, S. A. Taher, and B. Ganji, "Active generators power dispatching control in smart grid," in Proc. 2016 IEEE Electrical Power Distribution Networks Conf., pp 26-32.  

[26]  S. Xiaoling, and et al., "Microgrid stability controller based on adaptive robust total SMC," Energies, vol. 8, pp. 1784-1801, 2015.

[27]  F. Guo, C. Wen, J. Mao, and Y.-D. Song, “Distributed secondary voltage and frequency restoration control of droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 4355-4364, Jul. 2015.