Document Type : Original Research Paper


Computer Engineering Department, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.


Background and Objectives: To overcome the security flaw of RAPP authentication protocol, Zhuang et al. proposed a novel ultralightweight RFID mutual authentication protocol, called R2AP. In this paper, we first propose a new desynchronization attack against this protocol.
Methods: To extract the secret ID, linear cryptanalysis is used, which is a tool mostly for attack block ciphers.
Results: Our proposed desynchronization attack succeeds with the probability almost 1 and requires an adversary to initiate 1829 sessions of the protocol with the tag. On the other hand, the protocol updates the tag and the reader secretes to provide the tag holder privacy. However, it is shown that a passive adversary who eavesdrops only two sessions of the protocol can trace the tag with the probability of 0.921. In addition, passive attack for which the adversary can extract the secret ID of the tag is presented assuming that the adversary eavesdropped 128 sessions of the protocol, its success probability would be 0.387.
Conclusion: It was shown that R2AP suffers from desynchronization, traceability, and disclosure attacks, where the two later attacks work in passive adversary model.

©2018 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.


Main Subjects

[1] H.-Y. Chien, “SASI: A new ultralightweight RFID authentication protocol providing strong authentication and strong integrity,” IEEE Trans. Dependable Sec. Comput., 4(4): 337–340, 2007.

[2] P. Peris-Lopez, J. C. H. Castro, J. M. Est´evez-Tapiador, A. Ribagorda, “Advances in ultralightweight cryptography for low-cost RFID tags: Gossamer protocol,” in Proc. International Workshop on Information Security Applications (WISA): 56–68, 2008.

[3] A. Tewari, B. B. Gupta, “Cryptanalysis of a novel ultra-lightweight mutual authentication protocol for IoT devices using RFID tags,” The Journal of Supercomputing, 73(3): 1085–1102, 2017.

[4] G. Avoine, X. Carpent, B. Martin, “Privacy-friendly synchronized ultralightweight authentication protocols in the storm,” J. Network and Computer Applications, 35(2): 826–843, 2012.

[5] P. D’Arco, A. D. Santis, “On ultralightweight RFID authentication protocols,” IEEE Trans. Dependable Sec. Comput., 8(4): 548–563, 2011.

[6] M. Safkhani, N. Bagheri, “Passive secret disclosure attack on an ultralightweight authentication protocol for internet of things,” The Journal of Supercomputing, 73(8): 3579– 3585, 2017.

[7] R. C. W. Phan, “Cryptanalysis of a new ultralightweight RFID authentication protocol SASI,” IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 6(4): 316–320, 2009.

[8] X. Zhuang, Y. Zhu, C. Chang, “A new ultralightweight RFID protocol for low-cost tags: R2AP,” Wireless Personal Communications, 79(3): 1787–1802, 2014.

[9] Y. Tian, G. Chen, J. Li, “A new ultralightweight RFID authentication protocol with permutation,” IEEE Communications Letters, 16(5): 702–705, 2012.

[10] S. H. Wang, Z. Han, S. Liu, D. W. Chen, “Security analysis of RAPP an RFID authentication protocol based on permutation,” Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2012/327, 2012.

[11] L. R.  A. Last accessed 20 June, 2015.

[12] M. Matsui, “Linear cryptoanalysis method for DES cipher,” in Proc. EUROCRYPT: Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques: 386–397, 1994.

[13] K. Nyberg, Linear Cryptanalysis, Icebreak, 2013.

[14] Z. Ahmadian, M. Salmasizadeh, M. R. Aref, “Desynchronization attack on RAPP ultralightweight authentication protocol,” Inf. Process. Lett., 113(7): 205–209, 2013.

[15] Z. Ahmadian, M. Salmasizadeh, M. R. Aref, “Recursive linear and differential cryptanalysis of ultralightweight authentication protocols,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 8(7): 1140–1151, 2013.

[16] G. Avoine, X. Carpent, “Yet another ultralightweight authentication protocol that is broken,” presented at the Workshop on s Security – RFIDSec’12, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2012.

[17] N. Bagheri, M. Safkhani, P. Peris-Lopez, J. E. Tapiador, “Weaknesses in a new ultralightweight RFID authentication protocol with permutation – RAPP,” Security and Communication Networks, 7(6): 945–949, 2014.

[18] P. D’Arco, A. D. Santis, “Weaknesses in a recent ultra-lightweight RFID authentication protocol,” in Proc. AFRICACRYPT: International Conference on Cryptology in Africa: 27–39. Springer, 2008.

[19] R. Beaulieu, D. Shors, J. Smith, S. Treatman-Clark, B. Weeks, L. Wingers, “The SIMON and SPECK lightweight block ciphers,” presented at the 52nd Annual Design Automation Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2015.

[20] G. Yang, B. Zhu, V. Suder, M. D. Aagaard, G. Gong, “The Simeck
family of lightweight block ciphers,” presented at the CHES 2015: 17th International Workshop, Saint-Malo, France, 2015.

[21] A. Bogdanov, L. R. Knudsen, G. Leander, C. Paar, A. Poschmann, M. J. B. Robshaw, Y. Seurin, C. Vikkelsoe, “PRESENT: an ultra-lightweight block cipher,” in Proc. International Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 2007): 450–466, 2007.

[22] M. Safkhani, N. Bagheri, P. Peris-Lopez, J. M. E. Tapiador, “Employing a secure cipher does not guarantee the security of RFID protocols,” in Proc. ISCTURKEY 2014: 1–6, 2014.

[23] M. Safkhani, N. Bagheri, “Generalized desynchronization attack on UMAP: application to RCIA, KMAP, SLAP and SASI+ protocols,” IACR Cryptology, 2016.

[24] E. Taqieddin, H. Al-Dahoud, K. Mhaidat, “Security analysis and improvement of reconstruction based radio frequency identification authentication protocol,” International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, 8(3): 206, 2018.


Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in JECEI should be sent to the editorial office of JECEI within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.