Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Faculty of Advanced Technologies, Shiraz University, Shiraz,Iran

2 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Shiraz university Iran, Shiraz


Background and Objectives: In this work, porous nanoparticles of ferrite cobalt were prepared by dissolving CoCl2.6H2O and FeCl3 in ethylene glycol in a hydrothermal process. Using ethylene glycol instead of DI water as a solvent would cause to provide porous structure of ferrite cobalt.
Methods: In the present paper, 0.05 ml of colloidal fluid of fabricated nanostructure was injected on interdigitated electrodes (IDE) on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate by a drop casting process. Morphological and structural characterizations of structure were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and the obtained results of analyses show the porous nanostructure of the material.
Results: Sensor's performance in detection of gas vapors was evaluated in different temperatures which has the best response (20.38% for 100ppm methanol vapors) for methanol vapors at room temperature. performance of sensor in selection of methanol vapors, chemical stability and repeatability of that, makes it useful to profit it in different fields and industries.
Conclusion: Porous nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 were prepared by a hydrothermal process. By benefiting of XRD analysis and SEM images, porosity of nanostructure was approved. Response of sensor in different temperatures was measured. At room temperature, it has the best response of 21.38% for 100 ppm methanol vapors. Room temperature working of sensor causes reducing in power consumption and decreasing risks of working in high temperatures. This sensor has a good selectivity to methanol vapors in presence of ethanol, acetone, methane and LPG vapors. Repeatability and chemical stability of sensor in long times of working were approved.

©2018 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.


Main Subjects

[1] T. Inoue, K. Ohtsuka, Y. Yoshida, Y. Matsuura, Y. Kajiyama, “Metal oxide semiconductor NO2 sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 25(1-3): 388-391, 2017.

[2] T. Brent, J. Marquis, F. Vetelino, “A semiconducting metal oxide sensor array for the detection of NOx and NH3,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 77(1-2): 100-110, 2001.

[3] L. D'Arsié, V. Alijani, S. Brunelli, et al., “Improved recovery time and sensitivity to H2 and NH3 at room temperature with SnOx vertical nanopillars on ITO,” Sci Rep., 8(1): 4321-4329, 2018.

[4] I.  Gaidan, D. Brabazon, I. U. Ahad, “Response of a Zn₂TiO₄ Gas sensor to propanol at room temperature,” Sensors (Basel), 17(2): 735-742, 2017.

[5] N. B. Tanvir, E. Laubender, O. Yurchenko, G. Urban, “Room temperature CO sensing with metal oxide nanoparticles using work function readout,” Procedia Engineering, 168): 284-288, 2016.

[6] M. Leidinger, T. Sauerwald, T. Conrad, W. Reimringer, G. Ventura, A. Schütze, “Selective detection of hazardous indoor VOCs using metal oxide gas sensors,” Procedia Engineering, 87: 1449-1452, 2014.

[7] D. Chen, Y. J. Yuan, “Thin-film sensors for detection of formaldehyde: Aa review,” IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(12): 6749-6760, 2015.

[8] T. Sugai, T. Matsuzawa, “Rare earth metal-oxide-based CO2 gas sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 13(1-3): 480-482, 1993.

[9] Y. Wang, L. Liu, C. Meng, Y. Zhou, Z. Gao, X. Li, X. Cao, L. Xu, W. Zhu, “A novel ethanol gas sensor based on TiO2/Ag0.35V2O5 branched nanoheterostructures,” Scientific Reports, 228, pp.429-435, 2016.

[10] G. Lin, H. Wang, X. Li, X. Lai, Y. Zou, X. Zhou, D. Liu, J. Wan, H. Xin, “Chestnut-like CoFe2O4@SiO2@In2O3 nanocomposite microspheres with enhanced acetone sensing property,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 255(3): 3364-3373, 2018.

[11] Y. Zeng, Z. Hua, X. Tian, X. Li, Z.Qiu, C. Zhang, M. Wang, E. Li, “Selective detection of methanol by zeolite/Pd-WO3 gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 273: 1291-1299, 2018.

[12] K. Phasuksom, W. Prissanaroon-Ouajai, A. Sirivat, “Electrical conductivity response of methanol sensor based on conductive polyindole,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 262: 1013-1023, 2018.

[13] L. Wang, Z. Jiong Li, L. Luo, C. Zhou Zhao, L. Ping Kang, D, W. Liu, “Methanol sensing properties of honeycomb-like SnO2 grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 682: 170-175, 2016.

[14] J. Hui-Fang , L. Wei-Kang, L. Sen, L. Ying, S. Zhi-Feng , Y. T. Tian, X. Li, “High-performance methanol sensor based on GaN nanostructures grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 250: 518-524, 2016.

[15] L. Bie, X. Yan, J. Yin, Y.Q.  Duan, Z. Yuan, “Nanopillar ZnO gas sensor for hydrogen and ethanol,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 126): 604-608, 2007.

[16] B. Wang, L. F. Zhu, Y. H. Yang, N. S. Xu, and, and G. W. Yang, “Fabrication of a SnO2 nanowire gas sensor and sensor performance for hydrogen,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(17): 6643-6647, 2008.

[17] C. Xiangfeng, J. Dongli, G. Yu, Z. Chenmou, “Ethanol gas sensor based on CoFe2O4 nano-crystallines prepared by hydrothermal method,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 120: 177-181, 2006.

[18] S. Zhipeng, L. Lang, Z. Dian, P. Weiyu, “Simple synthesis of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles as gas-sensing materials,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 125: 144-148, 2007.

[19] B. Karunagaran, P. Uthirakumar, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, E. K. Suh, “TiO2 thin film gas sensor for monitoring ammonia,” Materials Characterization, 58(8-9): 680-684, 2017.

[20] Z. Xin, L. Jiangyang, W. Chen, S. Peng, H. Xiaolong, L. Xiaowei, S.  Shimanoe, Y. Noboru Y, L. Geyu, “Highly sensitive acetone gas sensor based on porous ZnFe2O4 nanospheres,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 206: 577-583, 2015.

[21] A. Šutka, K. Gross, “Spinel ferrite oxide semiconductor gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 222): 95-105, 2016.

[22] A. A. Bagade, V. V. Ganbavle, S. V. Mohite, T. D. Dongale, B. B. Sinha, K. Y. Rajpure, “Assessment of structural, morphological, magnetic and gas sensing properties of CoFe2O4 thin films,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 497: 181-192, 2017.

[23] X. Wang, W. Ma, F. Jiang, E. Cao, K. M. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Zhi Song, “Prussian blue analogue derived porous NiFe2O4 nanocubes for low-concentration acetone sensing at low working temperature,” Chemical Engineering Journal, 338: 504-512, 2018.

[24] E. Pervaiz, I. H. Gul, H. J. Anwar, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and nanorods,” Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, 26(2): 415-424, 2013.

[25] Y. Wang, D. Su et al., “Hollow CoFe2O4 nanospheres as a high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries,” Nanotechnology, 23(5).

[26] A. Abul Kalam, G. Al-Sehemi, M. Assiri, G. Du, T. Ahmad, I. Ahmad, M. Pannipara, “Modified solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles photocatalysts for degradation of methylene blue with H2O2/visible light,” Results in Physics, 8: 1046-1053, 2018.

[27] S. Gong, J. Liu, J. Xia, L. Quan, H. Liu, D. Zhou, “Gas sensing characteristics of SnO2 thin films and analyses of sensor response by the gas diffusion theory,” Materials Science and Engineering: B, 164(2): 85-90, 2009.

[28] K. Phasuksom, W. Prissanaroon-Ouajai, A. Sirivat, “Electrical conductivity response of methanol sensor based on conductive polyindole,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 262: 1013-1023, 2018.

[29] K. Li, M. Chen, Q. Zhongqi Zhu, Q. Liu, J. Zhang, “High selectivity methanol sensor based on Co-Fe2O3/ SmFeO3 p-n heterojunction composites,”  Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 765): 193-200, 2018.

[30] C. Zhang, Q. Wu, B. Zheng, J. You, Y. Luo, “Synthesis and acetone gas sensing properties of Ag activated hollow sphere structured ZnFe2O4,” Ceramics International, 44(17): 20700-20707, 2018.

[31] P.X. Zhao, Y. Tang, J. Mao, Y. X. Chen, H. Song, J. W. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Q. Liang, X. M. Zhang, “One-dimensional MoS2-decorated TiO2 nanotube gas sensors for efficient alcohol sensing,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 674: 252-258, 2016.

[32] B. Yang, J. Liu, H. Qin, Q. Liu, X. Jing, H. Zhang, R. Li, G. Huang, J. Wang, “Co3O4 nanoparticle-decorated hierarchical flower-like α-Fe2O3 microspheres: Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 727: 52-62, 2017.


Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in JECEI should be sent to the editorial office of JECEI within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.