Document Type : Review paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, Sadjad University of Technology, Mashhad, Iran.


Background and Objectives: To design an efficient tracker in a crowded environment based on artificial intelligence and image processing, there are several challenges such as the occlusion, fast motion, in-plane rotation, variations in target illumination and Other challenges of online tracking are the time complexity of the algorithm, increasing memory space, and tracker dependence on the target model. In this paper, for the first time, sketch matrix theory in ridge regression for video sequences has been proposed.
Methods: A new tracking object method based on the element-wise matrix with an online training method is proposed including the kernel correlation Filter (KCF), circular, and sketch matrix. The proposed algorithm is not only the free model but also increases the robustness of the tracker related to the scale variation, occlusion, fast motion, and reduces KCF drift.
Results: The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed sketch kernel correlation filter (SHKCF) can increase the computational speed of the algorithm and reduces both the time complexity and the memory space. Finally, the proposed tracker is implemented and experimentally evaluated based on video sequences of OTB50, OTB100 and VOT2016 benchmarks.
Conclusion: The experimental results show that the SHKCF method obtains not only OPE partial evaluation of Out of view, Occlusion and Motion Blur in object accuracy but also achieved the partial evaluation of Illumination Variation, Out of Plane Rotation, Scale Variation, Out of View, Occlusion, In of Plane Rotation, Background Clutter, Fast Motion and Deformation in object overlap which are the first rank compared to the state-the-art works. The result of accuracy, robustness and time complexity are obtained 0.929, 0.93 and 35.4, respectively.


Main Subjects

Open Access

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Publisher’s Note

JECEI Publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University

[9] M. Y. Abbass, K. C. Kwon, N. Kim, S. A Abdelwahab, F. E. A. El-Samie, A. A. Khalaf, “A survey on online learning for visual tracking,” Visual Comput., 37: 993–1014, 2021.


Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in JECEI should be sent to the editorial office of JECEI within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.