Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh


An inspection of signal processing approach in order to estimate underwater network cardinalities is conducted in this research. A matter of key prominence for underwater network is its cardinality estimation as the number of active cardinalities varies several times due to numerous natural and artificial reasons due to harsh underwater circumstances. So, a proper estimation technique is mandatory to continue an underwater network properly. To solve the problem, we used a statistical tool called cross-correlation technique, which is a significant aspect in signal processing approach. We have considered the mean of cross-correlation function (CCF) of the cardinalities as the estimation parameter in order to reduce the complexity compared to the former techniques. We have used a suitable acoustic signal called CHIRP signal for the estimation purpose which can ensure better performance for harsh underwater practical conditions. The process is shown for both two and three sensors cases. Finally, we have verified this proposed theory by a simulation in MATLAB programming environment.

Graphical Abstract

A Signal Processing Approach to Estimate Underwater Network Cardinalities with Lower Complexity


[1]      M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, “Fast and reliable estimation schemes in RFID systems,” in Proc. 12th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 322-333, ACM, 2006.
[2]      M.A. Bonuccelli, F. Lonetti, and F. Martelli, “Tree slotted ALOHA: a new protocol for tag identification in RFID networks,” In Proc. IEEE Computer Society 2006 International Symposium on on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, pp. 603-608, 2006.
[3]      P. Xie, Cui, J. H., and L. Lao, “VBF: vector-based forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks,” In Networking, vol. 3976, pp. 1216-1221, May 2016.
[4]      J. Shen, H.W.  Tan, J. Wang, J.W. Wang, and S.Y. Lee, “A novel routing protocol providing good transmission reliability in underwater sensor networks,” 網際網路技術學刊, vol, 16, no. 1, pp. 171-178, 2015.
[5]      J. Ryu, H. Lee, Y. Taekyoung Kwon, and Y. Choi, “A hybridquery tree protocol for tag collision arbitration in RFID systems,” ICC, vol. 7, pp. 5981-5986, 2007.
[6]      J. Myung, W. Lee, and J. Srivastava, “Adaptive binary splitting for efficient RFID tag anti-collision,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 144-146, 2006.
[7]      J. Myung, L. Wonjun, J. Srivastava, and K. Shih Timothy, “Tag-splitting: adaptive collision arbitration protocols for RFID tag identification,” IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 763-775, 2007.
[8]      M.A. Bonuccelli, F. Lonetti, and F. Martelli, “Perfect tag identification protocol in RFID networks,” arXiv preprint arXiv:0805.1877, 2008.
[9]      C. Budianu, B.D. Shai, and L.Tong, “Estimation of the number of operating sensors in large-scale sensor networks with mobile access,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1703-1715, 2006.
[10]   C. Budianu and L. Tong, “Estimation of the number of operating sensors in sensor network, In Signals, Systems and Computers,” in Proc. 2004 Conference Record of the Thirty-Seventh Asilomar, vol. 2, pp. 1728-1732, 2003.
[11]   C. Budianu, and L. Tong, “Good-Turing estimation of the number of operating sensors: a large deviations analysis, in acoustics, speech, and signal processing,” in Proc. ICASSP'04 IEEE International Conference on, vol. 2, pp. ii-1029, 2004.
[12]   H. Vogt, “Efficient object identification with passive RFID tags,” in Proc. International Conference on Pervasive Computing, pp. 98-113, 2002.
[13]   C. Floerkemeier, “Transmission control scheme for fast RFID object identification,” presented at the Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOMW'06), 2006.
[14]   Howlader, Md Shafiul Azam, M.R. Frater, and M.J. Ryan, “Estimating the number of neighbours and their distribution in an underwater communication network (UWCN),” in Proc. of Second International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, Canberra, pp. 20-22, 2007.
[15]   Howlader, Md Shafiul Azam, M.R. Frater, and M.J. Ryan, “Estimation in underwater sensor networks taking into account capture,” in Proc. IEEE OCEANS 2007-Europe, pp. 1-6. 2007.
[16]    L. Lanbo, Z. Shengli, and C. Jun‐Hong, “Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 8 , pp. 977-994, 2008.
[17]   M.S. Anower, “Estimation using cross-correlation in a communications network,” PhD diss., Australian Defence Force Academy, 2011.
[18]   M.S. Anower, M.A. Motin, M.S. AS, and S.A.H. Chowdhury, “A node estimation technique in underwater wireless sensor network,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), pp. 1-6, 2013.
[19]   M.S. Anower, M.R. Frater, and M.J. Ryan, “Estimation by cross-correlation of the number of nodes in underwater networks,” in Proc. IEEE 2009 Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), pp. 1-6, 2009.
[20]   S.A. Hossain, M.F. Ali, M.I. Akif, R. Islam, A.K Paul, and A. Halder, (2016, September). “A determination process of the number and distance of sea objects using CHIRP signal in a three sensors based underwater network,” in Proc. 2016 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Communication Technology (ICEEICT), pp. 1-6.
[21]   S.A. Hossain, M.S. Anower, and A. Halder, “A cross-correlation based signal processing approach to determine number and distance of objects in the sea using CHIRP signal,” in Proc. IEEE 2015 International Conference on Electrical & Electronic Engineering (ICEEE), pp. 177-180, November, 2015.
[22]   I.F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad hoc networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257-279, 2005.
[23]   H.P. Tan, R.R. Diamant, W.K. Seah, and M. Waldmeyer, “A survey of techniques and challenges in underwater localization,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 38, no. 14, pp. 1663-1676, 2011.


Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in JECEI should be sent to the editorial office of JECEI within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.